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Last Updated: Saturday November 17, 2001

Some Middle Eastern Creation Myths

The Annunaki [sky gods: Anu (sky), Enlil (earth), Shamash (sun), and Ea (water)], created the earth and the heavens. When they were finished, they looked carefully at their creation and concluded that something was missing. They decided that mankind was needed to till the fields and celebrate religious festivals. So it was that the first humans [Ulligarra (abundance) and Zalgarra (plenty)] were created. Aruru, the "lady of the gods", was given sway over their destinies.

From the mixing of Apsu (sweet water) and Tiamat (salt water) there arose the gods, Mummu (the waves), and Lakhmu and Lakhamu (gigantic twin serpents). The serpents produced Anshar (heaven) and Kishar (earth). From these two came Anu, Enlil, and Ea, as well as all the other gods of the sky, earth, and underworld. Apsu and Tiamat became angered because of the noise made by such a large group of gods, and began talking about killing off their progeny so they could get some rest. When Ea, the all-knowing, learned of this he used his magic to capture Apsu and Mummu. Tiamat was furious and raised a large army of gods and freaks to battle Ea and his cohorts. Anu and Ea became frightened and Ea created Marduk to battle Tiamat. Marduk promised to do so if he were granted supremacy over all the other gods. All the gods agreed and Marduk, armed with bow and arrows, lightning, the winds, a hurricane, and a special net sallied forth to battle Tiamat. When they clashed, Marduk caught Tiamat in his special net, and as she opened her mouth to swallow him, loosed the hurricane into her mouth. As she swelled from the hurricane within her, Marduk slew her with an arrow into her belly. Then he cast the net again capturing her army within it. These he chained and cast into the underworld. From her corpse the world is created. He was then proclaimed God of the Gods.

Persian (from Zoraster)

Avestae-from Zoroaster(Zithrusthra)

The Old Persian Story:

First the sky was created from rock crystal (note 1) in the shape of a hollow sphere so that it was both above and below where the earth would be. First water was created and then earth. Plants were created next and then animals. Finally humans were born and the seventh creation fire, most perfect of all, was made and all was done.
As the creator rested, the first mountain grew, Alburz(note 2) also known as Mount Hara or Harbatz taking 800 years to grow its roots into the earth and its crown upwards until it touched the sky. And when it touched the sky the sun, moon and stars were born and circled the top of Alburtz. As they revolved water fell from the sky and the tree collected it all about it into a sea called Vourukash. Thusly Alburtz was the source of all light and all water.(Note 5)
As the rains fell seven regions, or Karshvars (note 3) formed. The largest of these regions was Khvanrath, which was to be occupied by humans, and it was as large as the other six combined.
As Alburtz grew it sprouted other mountains, 2244 in all.(Note 4)
The Vourukash Sea sent out two mighty rivers, one to the west and one the east, making the boundaries of the known world. The water flowing into the rivers was purified, and it flowed from them to the Peak of Hara which threw the water into the air and became the rain again.
The Vourukasha Sea began to foam in its center and from that came the first tree, the Saena Tree (note 6). And as the first tree grew its crown provided a place for the first nest so the first bird appeared the Saena (note 7) and from the dropping leaves of the Saena Tree came the first plants, the very first plant being called Gaokerene which had healing properties when eaten and gave immortality to resurrected bodies of the dead.
With the great forces of creation so unleased the first animal came into existance, the white bull as bright as the moon, and it first lived on the banks of the River Vah Daiti (Veh Rod). It was killed by Angra Manyu (Note 8) and its seed flew upwards to the moon where it was purified and created may of the animals seen today. Also it created many plants when its seeds dropped back to earth from the moon.
Across from the bull's home on the river was the first man, Gayomarta (note 9)who also was created spontaneously by the force of creation. Angra Manyu in great anger destroyed this first human as well. The sun purified the man's seed for forty years when a rhubarb plant grew from them. The rhubard plant sloly grew into Mashya and Mashyanag, the first mortal couple. Angra Manyu tricked them into worhsipping him as their creator thusly the first sin occured, filling the world with corruption and evil. After 50 years they had twins, but because of their sin, they ate the children. After a long long time they had another set of twins from which comes all of us humans, but especially the Persians.

Note 1. Avesta, Yashta 13 then later metal
Note 2. Avesta, Yashta 19
Note 3. Karshvar is Middle Persian, modern Persian is keshvar meaning country
The Vedic texts say the same as the Persian texts. The B XII 1-2 "...Alburz ever grew till the completion of 800 years of which 200 years was to the sun's station, and 200 more years to the moon station, and yet 200 years more to the station of the endless night.
Note 4. The Bundahishn XII 1-2 text in Note 3 continues with the details of how many mountains grew from Alburtz.
Note 5. Vendidad 21,10 Note 6. Yasht 12, 17 Note 7. Senmurv in Phalavi, and Simurgh in old Persian Note 8. According to Zoroaster Note 9. Gayomad in Pahlavi, and Kiyumers in the text of the Shahameh
Sources:Printed References

In the beginning there was only darkness and water(Nammu). Out of this Chaos there came many odd creatures: men with wings, two faces, or both; creatures that were male and female combined; humans with goat feet; others who were part horse and part man. These creatures were ruled over by Omorka, the (female) moon. Omorka split in two, the halves were sky and earth, and destroyed all of the odd beings that existed. Then these halves, Anu and Ki gave birth to Enlil, the Air and the Storms. The trauma of the birth separated Anu from Ki, heaven from earth. Earth,Ki,gave birth to Ninlil. The Air and Storm god Enlil had a son from Ninlil known in Heaven as Sin, and on earth as Nanna, the Moon god.Sin produced two children, Utu, the Sun god, and the fertility goddess, Venus named Inanna.

Nammu alos produced Enki the fresh water god. Nammu, Enlil and Enki worked together to produce plants and animals. Men and women were created by the combined efforts of Nammu, Ki, and Enki.



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